|13 December 2009
New study on the diffusion of maize to the USA
An international group of anthropologists offers a new theory about the diffusion of maize to the Southwestern United States and the impact it had. The study, co-authored by Gayle Fritz, Ph.D., professor of anthropology in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis, and colleagues, suggests that maize was passed from group to group of Southwestern hunter-gatherers. These people took advantage of improved moisture conditions by integrating a storable and potentially high-yielding crop into their broad-spectrum subsistence strategy.
"For decades, there have been two competing scenarios for the spread of maize and other crops into what is now the U.S. Southwest," Fritz said. According to the first, groups of farmers migrated northward from central Mexico into northwest Mexico and from there into the Southwest, bringing their crops and associated lifeways with them. In the second scenario, maize moved northward from central Mexico to be Southwest by being passed from one hunter-gatherer band to the next, who incorporated the crop into their subsistence economies and eventually became farmers themselves.
On the new study, the researchers integrate what is currently known about early maize in the Southwest with genetic, paleoecological, and historical linguistic studies. Corn from five sites in Arizona and New Mexico now predates 2,000 BCE, which makes it too early to be explained by diffusion of settled Mexican villagers, said Fritz. "No artifacts or features of any type point to in-migrating Mesoamerican farmers; in fact, continuity of local traditions is manifested, with independent invention of low-fired ceramics and with the construction of irrigation features in the Tucson Basin dating earlier than any known south of the border," she said. "We interpret the linguistic evidence as favoring a very early (beginning shortly after 7,000 BCE), north-to-south movement of Proto-Uto-Aztecan hunter-gatherers and subsequent division into northern and southern Uto-Aztecan-speaking groups."
These two groups do not share words and meanings for maize because, according to the researchers' scenario, farming post-dates their separation. "We think the Southwest stands as a region in which indigenous foragers adopted crops and made the transition to agriculture locally rather than having been joined or displaced by in-migrating farming societies," Fritz said.
Sources: EurekAlert!, ScienceDaily (8 December 2009)
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